Saturday, January 18, 2020

Energy Conservation Mitigation Plan

Energy is one of the world’s greatest inventions of all time. We use energy on a daily basis for just about everything. Our way of life is based upon energy and how we use it. We use large amounts of energy for transportation and electricity. Due to the limited supply of resources available to us we need to make sure that we conserve them wisely so that these resources will be around for future generations. It is imperative that consumer start to take responsibility for their actions. There are two ways to conserve energy; one is by using energy efficient technologies and the other is by changing our habits. Individual efforts combined with governmental support will assist in decreasing energy usage which will in turn create a better environment for everyone. According to the EIA, the U. S energy consumption is 100 quadrillion btu/year and is projected to rise by 37 percent within the next 20 years. The U. S is also currently building 151 coal-fired electrical generating plants in order to keep up with the current demand (Holness, 2008). In 2003, 422 quads of energy were used in the world and 92 quads within the U. S alone. According to the report â€Å"Cutting Global Energy Demand Growth,† it is predicted that in the year 2020, the world will be at 613 quads. This report also states that by becoming energy efficient we can reduce this number to 478 quads in 2020 (Schirber, 2008). Some non living factors that contribute to energy consumption are the sun and the earth’s atmosphere. The sun produces large amounts of heat which creates heat. Humans tend to elude the heat by turning up their air conditioners. This increases energy use. Energy emissions that are released into the earth’s atmosphere can cause major health problem to humans and are very harmful to animals and plants. Living factors that contribute to energy consumption are plants and animals. If plants are affected by high energy consumption, than it will create a problem for the animals, which will than create a problem for the humans. The whole food chain could be distorted. Humans are the main living factor that contributes to energy consumption. We are dependent upon certain items such as fossil fuels for heat and energy. This is affecting our atmosphere causing problems for all types of living organisms. The greatest positive impact that energy conservation has is that natural resources will still be around for future generations if we start conserving now. Energy conservation will also have positive effects on our environment. It will also prevent health problems associated with burning fossil fuels and coal needed for energy. Humans also have a negative impact on energy usage. Most people do not realize the amount of energy they waste in any given day. Simple steps such as fixing lighting structures, planting trees around your house, and by driving less will help curve the energy abuse. All of these are very important steps in energy conservation. Leaving lights on when not in use is a negative impact on energy consumption. According to Laird (2009), people from all different occupations have been trying to find a way to better use our resources. For 20 years, our nation has been trying to come up with a plan to reach sustainability. The government is only a part of the equation. Everyone including innovators, government, firms, and nonprofit organizations need to come together. Simply put, they are not doing enough to make sure that energy sustainability is feasible for average consumers. Laird states that they need to create policies that are flexible and create institutions that can learn and change from mistakes. According to Laird (2009), â€Å"The level of funding, public and private, for renewable energy R&D is abysmally low, when seen in the context of the size of the energy market. † One of the most recent programs, Cash for Clunkers, was initiated by the government to assist individuals in buying more energy efficient vehicles. According to CARS (2009) over 700,000 clunkers were traded in for more fuel efficient vehicles in less than 30 days. My sustainability plan will primarily focus on citizens and what they can do to help conserve energy. I believe that in order to reduce energy consumption, we first need to start at the bottom which is in your homes. My plan will include researching the affects of energy abuse, educating citizens on how to conserve energy, plan meetings to distribute literature, and last but not least, showing citizens how they can help our environment and save them money as well. The first step in my sustainability plan is to do research to find out what basic steps can be taken at the consumer level to conserve energy. In the first two months I will gather all of the data necessary to present to citizens on how to conserve energy. In month two I will do informational surveys to see how many citizens are aware of the energy problem. This survey will also help me see how many people already are conserving energy in particular areas so that I can focus on areas that need more assistance. In month 3, I will than present the information to the citizens at a meeting. I will show them the following chart so that they can see how energy is consumed in the typical household. This chart will also assist me in showing residents where they can start making a difference at. This will show them areas they need to concentrate on in order to conserve energy and save them money. EIA. (2005). U. S household electricity report. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from www. eia. doe. gov I would make it imperative to the citizens to follow some basic guidelines in order to conserve energy. Some examples would be to use less wattage bulbs or even switch to fluorescent light bulbs that last ten times longer than other bulbs. Make sure you turn off lights when leaving a room. To cut energy on heating, residents can close curtains, lower thermostats, and seal out drafts. Some ways to conserve in the kitchen is to use adequate size pots and pans and turn down the flame if it is visible. Try not to preheat and use microwaves when feasible. If you have older appliances, replace them with newer, energy efficient appliances. Hang dry clothes when the weather permits. Other areas that you can improve energy consumption in are by lowering air conditioner temperatures. If you plant trees outside your home, it will create shade, making the temperature in your house cooler. I would end this meeting letting citizens know that they can always call their utility companies to come and do a home audit to show you how you can conserve energy. My final part of my plan would be to assist anyone who needed personal assistance with energy saving techniques. In this last month I would go to homes to see that they are doing their part in making sure they are conserving energy. If they needed help or additional information I would make that available to them. The biggest challenge in my plan is to show how purchasing these energy saving technologies is cost efficient to the buyers. Some people look at the initial cost and think that it is too high and don’t want to do anything about it. I would have to argue that some of the techniques are free and only require determination. Another challenge is gaining interest. I have to make sure that I get everyone involved. My goal would be to get one community started and then work on another community. I would need advocates to speak on behalf of energy conservation. The more people involved and committed to the plan, the better it will work. Benefits of my plan are obvious. We will not only be saving ourselves some money in the long run, but we will also be helping the environment out in a major way. We need to save our resources so that we have enough to last us a life time. Not to mention, we will be cutting down on pollution which is another environmental problem. In order to make a difference in our communities, we need support from not only the residents, but from the government as well. The government needs to step up and start mandating that certain codes are in effect on buildings. One successful program available to consumers and business is the ENERGY STAR Program. This program enables Americans to purchase products that saves them money and helps the environment. â€Å" In 2008, Americans with the help of ENERGY STAR, saved enough energy in 2008 alone to avoid greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to those from 29 million cars — all while saving $19 billion on their utility bills† (ENERGY STAR, n. d. ). ENERGY STAR is a program of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy. Their mission is to help us all save money and protect the environment by offering energy efficient products. More programs such as this need to be implemented in order to achieve our goal. We need to conserve energy to save money, especially in a struggling economy. The best part about doing this is that we are also doing something for our environment. Implementing plans to lower energy consumption is a difficult task, but not a task that is unachievable. Our nation cannot afford to waste natural resources that are rapidly diminishing. We need to change our way of life to conserve what the Earth has given us. Our Earth can no longer tolerate the misuse of energy if we want it to be around for many generations to come. Energy conservation is essential due to the limited supply of natural resources. Jenny Powers of NRDC states â€Å"The cheapest, cleanest energy is the energy you don’t use. † Let’s help break the cycle. As citizens we need to do our part by embracing an energy efficient lifestyle and slow down our demand for more electricity. References CARS. (2009). Cars allowance rebate system. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from www. cars. gov ENERGY STAR. (n. d. ). About ENERGY STAR. Retrieved November 3, 20009, from www. energystar. gov Holness, Gordon V. (2008). Improving Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings. ASHRAE Journal, 50(1), 12-14, 17-18, 20, 23-24, 26. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1415301201). Laird, F. (2009) A Full-Court Press for Renewable Energy, Issues in science and Technology, 25 (2), 53-56. Retrieved October 30, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier Database. EBSCO Schirber, Michael. (2008). Whatever happened to energy conservation? Live Science. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from www. livescience. com

Friday, January 10, 2020

True Meaning of Giving Thanks

History To 1877 Tia Edwards 5 October 2012 Native and European Relationships â€Å"Why must you take by force what you could obtain by love? † (Chief Powhatan) This was a famous quote said by Pocahontas’ Father to early English settler John Smith. The quote helps illustrate the brutality that settlers used to obtain land and goods during early colonization.The articles â€Å"Your People Live Only Upon Cod† and â€Å"The Print of My Ancestors’ Houses are Every Where to be Seen† help show, through the perspective of the Natives, that the nature of relationships of Natives and Non-natives in early America was at first beneficial, but over time the relationships became corrupted and would slowly deteriorate due to Europeans belief of supremacy over Natives, Europeans forced conversion of Natives’ lifestyle to Europeans’ beliefs, and Europeans hostile take over of Native land. The act of gift giving created a kinship between Natives and Eur opeans and eventually a very lucrative trading market was formed.Even though the kinship between Natives and Europeans was a booming economic opportunity the incoming settlers always looked down upon the Native people, seeing them only as savages who had no morals or religious guidance. â€Å"In the document â€Å"Your People Live Only Upon Cod† the French view the Mimacs’ lifestyle as horrible and unbearable due to the fact they didn’t display manners, social order or vast quantities of material possessions like the French. The French are even amazed at the Mimacs outdated mobile housing and try to persuade them to settle down and live in stationary houses instead of wigwams. The English also see themselves as a superior race and would discriminate against the Natives by refusing to trade with or engage in kinship rituals unless the Natives become reformed and lived a more English lifestyle. Thus, Colonialism became not only an economic move, but it also becam e a â€Å"civilizing mission† in order to bring social, political and religious change among the Natives. Europeans were aggressively pushing conversion on the Natives and it would lead to violence and war. All European settlers tried to reform Natives to a more civilized lifestyle by trying to convert Natives to believe in Christianity. In â€Å"Your People Only Live Upon Cod† the document states that European missionaries would actively interact with Natives to persuade them to take on a sophisticated European lifestyle with Christian beliefs. Occasionally Natives who were so overcome with grief, over the constant warfare with colonists and new diseases that devastated their tribes, they would succumb and take on a more reformed lifestyle. † Thus, Conversion became a crucial key point in Colonialism. The single most controversial issue that Natives and Europeans faced was land.The Natives believed that the land was nobodies to own, and that everyone should be a ble to share its resources. The European colonist believed in ownership of property just like owning possessions, and believed that the resources should be possessed and sold. In â€Å"The Print of My Ancestors’ House are Every Where to be Seen. † Little Turtle, who is chief of Miami Tribe, believes that the land in the Ohio Valley solely belongs to the Natives and the land should not be able to be sold or settled by white colonists. Little Turtle’s ancestors settled there many years ago and The Great Spirit told his ancestor to preserve the land.General Wayne, however, believes that since Britain gave that land to the Americas it should be their land and although Little Turtle’s ancestors may have settled there, they had no proven ownership or entitle to the land. Also, many British colonies were settled there as well and they are the ones that were in possession of it and gave it to America without acknowledging the Natives feelings. This testimony from General Wayne shows that the Colonists were more interested in gaining land and building settlements then keeping a peaceful; alliance with the Natives.The Natives and Europeans tried to engage in a friendly complimentary relationship where the two groups could help enrich and protect one another, however due to Europeans belief of over all superiority to the Natives, the European colonist’s authoritative conversion of Native life, and Europeans never ending conquest for Native land, the two groups couldn’t stay in a compatible alliance for long and then war would soon arise. The Natives and Europeans were in constant turmoil with each other and that turmoil only stopped once theNatives were irradiated and the America colonist could capture the rest of there land. King Philip’s Herd of Problems Livestock became the most popular and essential life resource for early colonists’ survival. Livestock not only helped maintain a food source to be easily availab le to the colonists, but the animals also provided several other products like hides and lard. Although livestock made colonists’ lives easier, the destructive costs of maintaining the animals would lead to much controversy with the local Natives.The scholar article â€Å"King Philip’s Herds: Indians, Colonists, and the Problem of Livestock in Early New England† describes the tension that arose from the colonists’ livestock, hogs specifically, and the events that would lead up to war. Primarily, the reasons livestock caused conflict between Natives and Colonists was because hogs were causing disruption in local Natives’ land, Colonists’ continuous development on Native land and the injustices Natives faced in the English government. Eventually Natives would take up animal husbandry, but it would not be enough to settle the uprising unrest that livestock damages caused.As tension began to build up between the English colonists and Natives, on e person became the mediator of the conflict. This man was Metacom, Chief of the Wampanoag tribe; also know as King Philip by the English. King Philip was constantly going to English courts trying to resolve the problems Natives faced with English hogs disturbing Native land. In King Philip’s article it states that Native lands and English settlements were usually in close proximity of each other and on countless occasions English hogs would wander unto Native cornfields, and would begin feasting upon their crops.Soon, Natives had to use more extreme measures to protect their food sources like building fences around crops and moving trees in from of underground food storages. These constant problems with livestock lead to tensions to rise. Furthermore, Natives would cause accidental damages to the livestock unknowingly aware of their presence, which Natives were required to pay for. These unfair laws that were required by the English government lead to a fast growing concern. John Winthrop argued that the Natives had no actually entitlement or possession of the land, so all land should be available to be settled on or bought by the Colonists (King Philip’s Herds, 604). As land stated to decrease so did the dear population. Since hunting populations were beginning to decrease drastically, some Natives had to find alternative food sources. Wampanoag began actively engaging in rising of livestock, also known as animal husbandry, even though the integration of owning animals as property did not fit well with Native customs (King Philip’s Herd, 606).The Natives at first despised the animals for their savage like nature. Eventually Natives were able to domesticate hogs and be trained to be more efficient. Although some natives had to abandon hunting altogether, the use of hogs became an even more important commodity to the Wampanoag (King Philip’s Herd, 613). This progressively intrusions on Wampanoag land lead King Philip to fight for his people by turning to local governments for help. However, the law favored towards the English colonists more then Native concerns.King Philip’s article describes how Natives were soon required to fence off their crops in order to stop hogs from damaging their food. If the Natives refused to construct a fence to guard their crops, the government would deny any legal action to be persuaded on colonists if crops were damaged by livestock. King Philip even went to court himself to resolve the conflicts, and although the courts passed many laws to protect the natives, colonists ignored the ruling and continued to take advance on Wampanoag territory (King Philip’s Herd, 619).Finally conflicts passed the tipping point when good land for livestock became more limited, English colonies and Wampanoag land were approaching each other more rapidly and soon livestock causing damages to both Wampanoag and Colonists became so common that colonial government decided to instate a hand s-off policy on trespassing. Trespassing was a violating on the Wampanoags’ rights and felt that their land should be treated with respect (King Philip’s Herd, 622). This caused an up roar of anger on both sides and eventually King Philip declared war on the English settlers.The Wampanoag people not only attacked colonists but they primarily attacked livestock as a metaphoric gesture for all the trouble the animals had caused them. And although King Philip had died in the war on August 1676, the Wampanoag people had caused massive amounts of damage to colonists and their settlements, plus casualties of livestock reached about 8,000, although this amount of death was not enough to destroy the colonists food source (King Philip’s Herd, 623).King Philip had tried diplomacy time and time again in order to prevent the uprising, but due to the livestock’s destructive nature, settlers invading of Wampanoag land, and the government’s helplessness to stop t he constant incoming of livestock caused problems, war was all but inevitable. Although livestock was an essential to helping colonists survive in the new world, it was the catalyst for many problems and conflicts that ended with the death of many English, Wampanoag, and Livestock lives.Had all three groups learned to live harmoniously with one another, war could have been avoided and peace could have been restored. Colonization in the New World Colonization and Colonialism are the most important principles for any developing country. Colonization helps to create new settlements on which citizens can live on and make earnings. Colonialism is when a greater power uses a lesser power in order to gain control over their resources to enrich the greater power. Both of these principles were key elements for the Spanish, French and British in establishing territories to make profits and expand trade.Each empire experienced change in their colonization strategies however by the Spanish star ting with a violent military conquest and altering to a more peaceful kinship resolution, French started as a small peaceful colony with no desire to colonize to maintaining control over most of the North American region, and the British colonized to gain land and gain new economic developments for poorer citizens which turned to citizens rebellion and claiming their independence from the British empire. Every empire’s tactics helped shape North America into a new colony for early English settlers to search for independence.The Spanish where the first to arrive in North America near the Caribbean, and begin creating foundations for the first colony. Christopher Columbus was the first settler in the new world and when he arrived in 1492 he was immediately intrigued by the local Native tribe. He saw the Natives as potential slaves and servants to help achieve the goals of power and wealth. Even in the beginning the Spanish saw natives only as tools to be used, not allies to be coexisted with. The Spanish discovered gold and started to capture the local natives and enforce them to serve in the mines.Soon the Spanish started to explore and establish colonies on local islands such as Puerto Rica, Jamaica, and Cuba (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 35-36). The Spanish mainly focused on colonizing highly populous areas, which cause a back lash of new diseases to effect the inhabitants, due to lack of resistance, and caused many deaths. The Spanish were even able to overtake many powerful empires, such as the Aztecs, due to the immense death toll from disease and the Spanish’s overwhelming technologically advanced army (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 40).Military conquest and war would continue until in 1598 priests and colonists arrive in a colony in which the Spanish called â€Å"New Mexico†. The Spanish viewed New Mexico as a possible agricultural colony which would supply food to the Spanish Empire. The Catholic priests were at first greeted and rejoiced because heavy rain fall had started soon after their arrival. The priests even tried to convert the Pueblos to Catholic beliefs to save their souls but once a severe drought and small pox epidemic broke, the Pueblos decided to deny Christianity and revolt.The Pueblos drove away the Spanish forces, even with their diminished numbers, and became a free colony again. In order to for the Spanish empire to regain control over the land, the Spanish sent Diego de Vargas who used a more peaceful approach with the Pueblo people, hoping to rely more on kinship ceremonies and think less like a military force. Diego de Vargas even went to the Pueblo colony himself in order gain kinship and began trade with the Pueblos. The Spanish even helped protect the Pueblos from their enemies in order to solidify a more peaceful treaty between the two groups.Even though the New Mexico colony eventually became self sustaining the tension between the two groups still existed due to the Spanish†™s originally military conquest of the land. Coexistence and cooperation was finally achieved but only after the Spanish changed from their warfare, violence and forced conversion of native lifestyles ideals. When the French began their colonization of the new world they had no desire to colonize in North America, they simply wanted to gain profits and receive new items through trade.The most successful and profitable colony called New France, around present day Quebec, was established in 1608 (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 45). Unlike the Spanish and British, The French had considerably small group of colonists. Instead of actively engaging in warfare and acquiring land and diminishing the remainder of their population. The French took up kinship and fur trading as opposed to violence. This act of non-violence caused very few occasions of warfare to occur, and thus natives were more open to helping and trading with the French.In the document â€Å"Your People Live Only Upon Cod †: An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority† it states how the French were so unable to fend for themselves that the local Algonquian tribe had to help them survive. They would fish out cod for them and helped them develop ways to make food. Even though the French always thought they were better then the Natives, the kinship that the French shared with Natives helped them survive. With the help of the Natives, the French became more profitable in trading then any other empire.In order to gain a more concrete kinship with the Natives, French started interbreeding with the Natives. This created a new group called Metis, who were children that would be ingrained with both French and Native culture. The French also had Catholic Jesuits who tried to convert the Natives but they were more open to native religion then any other empire. Instead of forcing Catholicism on the natives and having coercion occur. The Jesuits used peaceful integration like Die go de Vargas used on the Pueblos. This created less resistance and more accepting by the Natives.In the document â€Å"Your People Live Only on Cod† The French also helped protect their native allies against enemies. In the document â€Å"The Iroquois were much astonished that two men should have been killed so quickly† Samuel de Champlain and a few of his men help aid the Montagnais, Algonquian, and Herons in a battle with the Iroquois. During the battle Samuel takes out a gun and shoots at the three head chiefs, which his allies requested he kill. After one shoot two of the chiefs were instantly dead with one was so injured he died soon after. The enemy soon fled in fear of the weapon.With the French having a technological advantage over the enemy, many of their allies would trade to have possession of these new and powerful guns, making their allies more powerful. Soon the French stated to maintain huge portions of land due to the protection that was aided by their allied Natives. The natives would help fight for the French in many battles including the Seven Years’ war with Britain. Also, in the same document, Samuel and his men take about a dozen Iroquois men as prisoners. This became a common practice in warfare for enemy men to be captured after a war.Captives began being traded for kinship and became very popular among the French. Captive taking was used more to embarrass the enemy, but it soon became more profitable to trade them to the French. Consequently, as demand for more captives, to be used as slaves, increased the allied Natives would engage in more warfare causing a massive increase in violence to occur between Natives. Although the French started small and never intention to massively colonize, over time became the largest and most profitable empire to settle in North America.The British Empire’s goal for colonizing was to gain land. Britain had a huge increase in population and a vast decrease in economic growth in the 15th century. This caused a lot of hostility to build with lower class citizens and it lead to crime and poverty starting to occur more frequently in British cities. In order to ease the tension, the Virginia Company is created to start colonization in the North America with the first colony of Virginia. It was used as a scapegoat to transport poorer citizens away from the cities to decrease risk of revolution.Once they arrived, a town called Jamestown is built in 1607. This was the first commercial colony with tobacco being its main cash crop. War between Natives and British only worsened as more colonies began to be developed. The warfare hit an all time high after the death of the Powhatan Chief’s daughter Pocahontas, after she was taken to be civilized in Britain. This was the start of the first Anglo-Powhatan war and it ended after the Powhatan Chief died (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 48). Like the Spanish, Britain used warfare and military conquest in order to gain land.In order to provide food for all the new growing population in the colonies, livestock and animal husbandry became very important. In the scholar article â€Å"King Philip’s Herd, it showed how dependent colonists were on livestock, and how it helped develop the economy caused many issues with the neighboring natives. Although livestock became popular among the natives, the disregard colonists showed toward the natives and their land lead to King Philip’s War. In order for Britain to gain more land to colonize, they would constantly be at war with natives.Britain would primarily use violence to gain control of land. As land increased, more workers would be needed to work. At first Britain used captured natives like the French. The British demand for slaves became so high that colonists began stealing Yamasee men away from their villages; this caused another war between Britain and Natives. Britain begins alliance with Cherokee in order to stop warfare. After the war ends, the South Carolina colony promises to stop using native slaves, and begins a massive switch to Africa slaves.After 1680 there are fewer indentured servants and almost all labor is done by slaves. The process of forced labor moves from Natives to Africans, coercion continues in British colonizes. As colonization continues, British decide they want land in the Ohio Valley because of its fertile farmland. However, the French had already occupied that in their colony New France. Soon a war breaks out between the French and British with the French being allied with Natives and the British using their colonists. Eventually Britain wins the war and is able to take control over the land.Soon, Britain decides to decrease all kinship relations with native and focus more on establishing new settlements and fort building. This angers local natives so the Ottawa tribe unify with the Ojibwa, Delaware, Shawnee, Mongo, Potawatomie in Pontiac’s Rebellion. The fighting ends in a stalemate and in order to appease the Natives the Proclamation Line of 1763 is created in order to stop colonists settling in the Ohio Valley, and leave it all to Natives. T he British Empire saw that in order to stop another Native uprising, they most stop invading on their land and coexist.However, when Britain decides to forbid any colonization on the Ohio Valley many English colonists become outraged. More Conflicts would soon unfold with Britain and the colonists, especially with the fear of taxation. The idea of taxation and the denial of the Ohio River Valley begin a united revolt against the British in order to gain independence. English colonists want to govern themselves and control the land the Britain Empire controls to colonize. The Colonists soon revolt by declaring the Revolutionary War.With the help of both French and Spanish empires the colonists win the way. At the end of the Revolutionary War Britain gives all the land they gained through colonization to the Colo nists. The original British goal of colonization was gaining land. After the war however they lose all the land they had originally gained, and must return home empty handed. Once the colonists are free and have their own independent government, U. S. colonization begins. The U. S. colonization was exactly like the British Empire’s original goal, gaining land by any means necessary.Once the colonists take control over British lands, they start rapid expansion of land possession. George Washington believed in â€Å"Expansion with Honor† The idea was that colonists would purchase land through treaties. However Washington wanted to conquer natives and remove them similar to what the Spanish empire wished to due. Washington sends armies to defeat the Native Confederacy and without the British Empire supporting them the Native Confederacy and is defeated. Anthony Wayne becomes big part in helping to achieve Washington’s goal.In the document â€Å"The Print of My Anc estors’ Houses are Every Where† The article shows how Washington and Wayne didn’t care about the fact they were invading on the Natives spiritual land and found it more important that they obtain the land in order to colonize more. Wayne even uses alcohol as bribery to agree to the treaty of Greenville. Although this method worked, many people viewed it as an authoritative method to colonize. Thomas Jefferson was a big supporter of this fact. Jefferson claimed he would do things more respectively and honestly if he was elected president.Once elected, his policy was called the â€Å"Civilization Program†. This plan was to force natives to take on a more American lifestyle. Natives would be forced to change religions and adapt to more customary American culture. Jefferson’s hopeful goal was if Natives were Americans they would sell their land for profit. This will open native land to American expansion. However, just like Washington, Jefferson used an y method necessary to gain native lands. Jefferson believes Louisiana Purchase could be where all where Natives could go to be civilized in American culture.Jefferson even abandons his beliefs in strict constitutional interpretation and uses implied power in order to justify the Louisiana Purchase. When it came to U. S. Colonization the colonists believed they were more democratic and fair then during European empires. In actuality colonists used the same tactics of violence and coercion in order to get rid of Natives and take control of their land. Colonization and Colonialism helped build empires up while it tore other ones down. While these two methods it enriched the empires while made other countries suffer.Through the course of time the empires changed their tactics in order to better coexist and survive like the Spanish switching form a military campaign to using more peaceful alternatives, The French starting small and through trading and kinship with natives becoming the do minant power, The British who cared only about gaining land, gave it back to avoid tensions with natives. The three major empires learned to coexist and adapt to Natives; however U. S. colonization was all about warfare and forcibly taking land away from natives. The U. S. was all about expansion and it didn’t matter who they hurt in order to achieve their goals.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Multicultural Issues in the Helping Profession Essay

Multiculturalism is described as â€Å"the practice of giving equal emphasis to the needs and contributions of all cultural groups especially traditionally underrepresented minority groups in a society† (Webster’s, 2003). In our country â€Å"it is estimated that by the year 2050, no more than 50% of the population will be of Anglo ancestry† (Cillo, 1998). It is also important to consider and recognize the number of sub-cultures that exist such as interracial couples, the disabled such as children with autism, and homosexual cultures. In this new era we live in, interracial marriages and relationships are becoming more customary than forty years ago. When the immigration policy changed allowing more Asians and Hispanics into the United States,†¦show more content†¦The counselor must be sensitive to the fragile needs of the interracial couple. She suggested several coping strategies, such as â€Å"awareness, support groups, humor, family, and confronting † (Killian, 2001). To become cognizant of the situation, the couple may want to â€Å"increase their awareness and indulge in positive communication among themselves† (McNamara, et. al). Joining an interracial support group may provide positive ways of handling the negative feedback that comes from the community or from society in general. Talking to family members of both partners and a willingness to help them to understand these choices may help them feel more comfortable with the whole situation. Finally, confronting the people with negative attitudes towards the interracial relationship may be something the couple might want to try, while keeping in mind that others are entitled to their opinion. The helper should make suggestions such as discussing negative feedback from family members who do not quite understand the relationship. Another suggestion the helper could make to the couple would be building their own family identity, by starting their own traditions (M cNamara, et. al, 1999). Although interracial relationships have come far in today’s world, there remain those who frown upon these types of unions. The hatred, hostility, and discomfort will always be present, butShow MoreRelatedoopapers Examining the Current State of the Profession Paper1013 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Examining the Current State of the Profession Paper CCMH/510 July 9, 14 Examining the Current State of the Profession Paper Derald (2013) stated,  Ã¢â‚¬Å"The adage â€Å"counselor or therapist, know thyself† is the basic building block to cultural competence in the helping professions.† (P.6) Part of connecting with clients includes the separation and awareness of the helping professional versus the other person. 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Complete the following tables to compare several organizations and their guidelines about their responsibilities to their clients, their responsibilities to service providers, their attitudes concerning the duty to warn and theRead MoreThe Theory Of Self Efficacy1645 Words   |  7 Pagesthat research suggest that teacher self-efficacy often influences the teachers willingness to implement new instruction in the classroom. Research also suggests that teachers with high self-efficacy tend to be more effective in the classroom and helping students especially minority students achieve higher. In this article, the authors suggest that using self-efficacy building activities to build self-esteem in African American students. The general belief suggested activities is that preparing teachersRead MoreEthical Issues in Education Essay example1736 Words   |  7 Pagesethical decisions. It stresses importance on obligation to moral values and vital beliefs. Application of a code of ethics helps us to guarantee that members of the profession will be accountable for their actions. It helps us to learn about the responsibility we have for ourselves, our colleagues and to the social structure of the profession. It is essential that the present and future psychologist should be aware of the formal ethical codes of practices in psychology. The American PsychologicalRead MoreStudent Affairs Administration Master s Program : Supplemental Prompts1273 Words   |  6 Pageslack of diversity in the profession. I have gotten the feeling that many of the individuals who have mentored me have a very limited understanding of the challenges of minority students and how to support them. It appears that many of the individuals are primarily white and generally cisgender and heterosexual. This is not to say that they do not care, quite the opposite, actually. Although I identify as white, I have spent a significant amount of time among our multicultural communities. In that time

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Protests Against the Vietnam War - 996 Words

James A. Baldwin once said, â€Å"The most dangerous creation of any society is the man who has nothing to lose† (BrainyQuote.com). In the 1960s, â€Å"the man† was youth across the country. The Vietnam war was in full force, and students across the country were in an outrage. Society needed an excuse to rebel against the boring and safe way of life they were used to; Vietnam gave them the excuse they needed. Teenagers from different universities came together and formed various organizations that protested the Vietnam war for many reasons. These reasons included protesting weapons and different tactics used in the war, and the reason the U.S. entered the war in the first place. These get-togethers had such a monumental impact on their way of†¦show more content†¦A capsule was drawn by Congressman Alexander Pirnie, any man born between 1944 and 1950 has their name in the capsule and if drawn, must participate in the war. This angered Americans because it was a gainst their will, and they felt as if the government was controlling every aspect of their life. Another reason American adults were against the war was because of the weapons and strategic tactics used in the war. As stated in â€Å"Weapons of the Vietnam War†, Weapons used in the Vietnam War were more mortifying than in any other war. The communist side (the Soviet Union) used not only your standardized weapons, but they also used toxic chemicals and explosives (History.com). South Vietnam was in real trouble, the American-manufactured weapons were no match to the devastating weapons that the communists used. Back at the homefront, people were horrified when they caught wind of what was happening out in battle, this egged on more protests. In accordance with â€Å"Vietnam War Protests†, The SDS organized more Anti-war marches and other protests after the United States retaliated on North Vietnam by beginning to bomb them (History.com). The cost of materials were goi ng up and it was getting more expensive to make the bombs and other weapons, the U.S. was putting a whole $25 billion a year into manufacturing these supplies. This upset Americans not just on a moral level anymore, but also on an economic level; the governmentShow MoreRelated The Vietnam War and the Protest Against It Essay3560 Words   |  15 Pagesboth in the Vietnam War and in the struggle to stop it. I learned that patriotism includes protest, not just military service.† The Vietnam War was a conflict that lasted from 1956-1975 which the United States participated in along with the South Vietnamese who fought against the Communist North Vietnamese. Many Americans strongly disapproved of the war which caused many protests and riots. The war lasted 25 years killing many people and eventually the North Vietnamese won. The Vietnam War was importantRead MoreThe Moratorium March 752 Words   |  4 PagesNovember 15, 1969, the Moratorium March against the Vietnam War commenced in Washington D.C. Pacifists and peace administrators carried banners which stated, †A Calvinist for peace, No more war, We want peace now,† and some carried placards bearing the name of soldiers that had died during the war (Leen). The placards that had names of fallen soldiers were first used on November 13, 1969 during the protest called â€Å"March against Death.† Two days after this protest, the â€Å"Moratorium March† began. ThisRead MoreVietnam War Protests1552 Words   |  6 Pages Vietnam War Protests Introduction How the Americans Got Involved During the Cold War, American political leadership was determined to slow the spread of communism wherever it could be slowed. The policy that American leadership followed (The Domino Theory) was that if the communists took over one country, the countries around that nation would soon fall to the communists, like dominos. Hence, communism needed to be stopped. President Dwight Eisenhower initially sent some advisors (an estimatedRead MoreFacts About The Vietnam War1511 Words   |  7 Pageslongest recorded and arguably one of the most controversial wars in American history is the Vietnam war. In 1959, the communist government of North Vietnam had devised a guerrilla campaign in democratic South Vietnam. The government of North Vietnam had the goal of uniting both countries under a communist reign. The United States quickly became an ally with South Vietnam because they feared the spread of communism. The aftermath of the war resulted in sixty thousand American deaths and two million Read MoreHis/135 Week 5 Assignment Vietnam War761 Words   |  4 PagesThe Vietnam War is one of America’s longest lasting wars beginning in 1955, and lasting until 1975. The United States became involved in the Vietnam War because of its efforts to stop communism in Southeast Asia. The United States feared that if communist took over Southeast Asia it would cause a domino effect around the world. The United States began sending financial aid and military advisors to South Vietnam to help stop a communist takeover. North Vietnam was run by communist leader Ho Chi MinhRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War1072 Words   |  5 PagesThe Vietnam War was one of the most deadly wars in history, taking over three million lives during the 20-year war. It began in the mid 50’s, between Northern and Southern Vietnam. The United States joined the Vietnam War in 1965, and by 1969 there were about 500,000 U.S. soldiers involved with the war. The war began to slow down in ‘73 w hen President Nixon pulled the American troops, and the long hard war ended in 1975 after the Communists seized control. The Vietnam war was considered wrongRead MoreThe Song Bring Em Home 1743 Words   |  7 Pages The song â€Å"Bring ‘em Home† was a protest song about the Vietnam War. The song was written and performed by Pete Seeger. Pete Seeger was born in May 3, 1919. Since birth Pete Seeger had a musical orientated childhood. His parents were both involved with music in some way. His father majored in musicology and his mother was a concert violinist. Pete became interested with music in his teenage years. Seeger went on to the Harvard University but later dropped out. â€Å"Pete met, traveled and performed withRead More Austrailas Involvment in the Vietnam War1048 Words   |  5 PagesWhy did Australia become involved in the Vietnam War? Australia first came involved in the Vietnam conflict in 1962 when the Australian Government sent a team of thirty army advisers to help train the South Vietnamese Army for its fight against the NLF guerrillas. At the same time a squadron of Royal Australian Air Force fighters were sent to nearby Thailand. While the alliance with the USA was becoming increasingly important, Australia still had strong ties with Britian. In January 1965, AustraliaRead MoreThe Anti-War and Hippie Movements1344 Words   |  5 Pageswas born in the midst of the Vietnam War. Many people protested against the Vietnam War and the horrors that many people saw on TV because of it. Many incidents triggered the Anti-War movement and the Hippie counter culture such as the growing United States involvement in Southern Vietnam, the gruesome images that the evening news showed uncensored, the draft that caused many thousands of men to lose their lives and their minds as the end result of the war. This war triggered a great sense of whatRead MoreEssay on Johnsons War: The Domino Effect1031 Words   |  5 PagesSpecial Forces in South Vietnam but President Johnson made the decision to engage in full warfare in the region. Because Johnson decided to engage in full warfare, it is fair and truthful to dub the Vietnam conflict, â€Å"Johnson’s War.† After President Johnson finished JFK’s term, he was in a bit of a â€Å"pickle.† Johnson wanted to stay the course in Vietnam but he feared that a military setback in the region would tarnish his image for the upcoming election. Johnson campaigned against Arizona Senator Barry

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

ReligionFinalpaper - 1535 Words

Shelby Teal Professor Thompson Final Paper Part one â€Å"Critical intelligence involves a number of different intellectual skills including analysis and synthesis (Kessler, p.6.) My understanding of critical intelligence is a viewpoint withholding judgement and being critical while looking at different religions. As a student practicing critical Intelligence in this class was a huge part of understanding the case studies. In the case Adding Eid the Superintendent of the Cambridge Public School Jeff Young took on a large issue when he was asked to add a Muslim holiday to the school calendar. At first he just wanted the issue to go away, asking himself if it really was a battle he wanted to choose. Later, he realized it was a really†¦show more content†¦Later he realized that in his heart he truly believed the holiday should be on the school calendar and the school day should be given off to all students. I originally felt like it should not be added because It wasnt a largely practiced religion event where Im from. As I went through and dissected the case I found that there were a lot of people that would indeed benefit from having the holiday added. Muslim students benefit the most because they can enjoy the Holiday without missing tests, or important assignments that impact their grades. Parents would be less stressed on the holiday if they didnt have to have it interrupted by needing to pick their child up from school or worry about calling into school when they should be celebrating their faith. I imagined if we didnt get Christmas off and I had to go to school instead. A lot of memories from the holiday wouldnt happen. I think Holidays are an important part of religion, and are a very sacred time for families. You cant make one Holiday more important than the other, because when you do you undermine and insult other important religious holidays. When I read the scholarly article an interesting perspective was introduced to me. What if I were to go to another country that wasnt christian? Would my holidays be recognized at all? Being that Christianity is the major religion in America, I support adding Eid to the school calendars, but am not going to be a huge activist on the

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Global Food Security How Best to Feed the World

Question: Explain? How Global food security best to feed the world? Answer: In this assignment it will be discussed that how the professional food science technologists are utilizing their expertise in the food science and technology in United Kingdom. In this assignment it has also been discussed that what the personal qualities a food science technologists required for complying themselves with the accurate communications and skills. In United Kingdom and also in other European Union countries this study has been making an outstanding mark in the world. Food science and technology is one of the most well-liked subjects of todays generation. This subject has given a very good carrier option to the students. By studying this course the students can make their future in this department and take care about the food habits of the common people. Food science is that study where the physical, chemical and biological make up has been done of the food and in this the underlying process of the food processing is also been done and food technology is that type of science where the food selection, processing, preservation, packaging and distribution has been done to keep the food safe (Robertson, 2012). Food and science technology is that subject where after studying about this subject they go into that profession where they have to check the food qualities which are served in different restaurants and hotels. They test the food qualities that which is better to use and which are not. For a food science professional their main work is to test the kitchen work whether the kitchen is kept clean or not. The foods which are being used are fresh or not. The utensils in which the foods are cooked and also kept are cleaned or not because the hygiene factors need to be maintained so that the name of the restaurant and the hotels remain high and the customers keep on coming (Gunstone, Ed.2011). A professional food science technologist always keeps writing about their product specification so that they can give their specification to the hotel managers and also to the restaurant or caf managers so that they the kitchen and its environment clean and keep all the products in their place hygieni c. Now a days each and every customers are always keep the hygienic factor in their top most priority( Bucchi, and Trench, Eds.2014). So, to keep their customers satisfied and also keep their place up to dated and hygienic the managers have to always keep themselves in touch with the food science technologists who will tell them how to keep everything perfect. The food science technologists need to keep contact with the suppliers who are delivering the raw materials to the hotels and restaurants. They have to give them strict instructions that they should supply fresh food and also should maintain the hygiene and the cold storage where the restaurant owners and hotels owners are keeping their raw materials need to be clean so that the food should be fresh and none of the raw materials should be worm affected. The food which are being kept in the cold storage need to be checked on a daily basis that no of them are not getting rotten because if one of the items start getting affected by the worms then it will rot other raw materials also and these will create a big problem for the owners of the restaurants and hotels. The food science technologists should organize events and give workshops to the students of this course that how to keep the standard of the food qualities (Sun, Ed.2012). They also should organize events for the customers and show them that how they are keeping the hygiene factors for restaurants and hotels and how they take care of the raw materials in their cold storage and from where they are buying their raw materials which they are using in their hotels and also maintaining the hygiene factors of their respective kitchen. This events or the workshop will help the customers to understand that how they maintain their kitchen keeping in mind about the hygiene factors for their customers. The food science technologists goes for one to one talk with the managers and tell them about their view of checking the food qualities which they are serving t o their customers and guests and also listens to the managers view and also what steps they are taking for maintaining the food qualities of their place (Campbell-Platt, 2009). When the parents comes with their wards to the restaurants then the food science technologists have to talk with them how the restaurant are keeping their hygiene factors so that the parents do not have to think about the hygiene factors maintained in the restaurants and they also suggests the parents by what steps they can keep their home more hygienic and also the food which can be kept germ free and keep their wards away from diseases. They can give the parents a course on nutrition so that they can make their wards eat nutritious food but now a days keeps running away from healthy foods and always wants to have unhealthy and junk foods. So, the technologists can teach the parents to make the nutritious food tasty so that the wards do not create any problem while having them (Rockland, and Stewart Eds 2013 ). The food technologists should have a session with a group of kids and tell them about the hygienic food which they should have to keep themselves healthy and fit so that they can become a famous sportsman in their future. The technologists should also tell the kids about all the positive and goods things they should do to keep them fit and healthy (Rao, and Ahmed,Eds. 2014).. The food technologists can also give cooking sessions to the parents and also to food stall owners and chefs on how to maintain the qualities of the food so that the main healthy factors within the food remains and do not wash away while washing the foods and also while cooking them (Walstra, and Geurts, 2014). The food technologists should also write in bulletins so that they can give their messages to all those people also with whom they cannot contact face to face and make them aware of the hygienic sense of the food qualities so that they can maintain the food qualities at home and also in their work pla ce i.e. in restaurants and hotels (Stumbo, 2013). The food technologists should also manage web pages where they can give their important inputs to the whole world about food qualities and how the people should maintain the food qualities. They also responds to the emails and newsletters which the common people send them asking about the quires and the technologists tries to solve their queries as much as they can (Li-Chan, and Griffiths,Eds .2011). The technologists should have a good communication skill which will help them for communicating with the cooks of the restaurants and the managers of the hotels and restaurants. They should possess the ability of working in a team because they have to work in a team and they should also be flexible with their work timing because they might be needed at any place at any point of time. As they have to work online also so they need to be good in their IT skills and with team work they also should have the ability in partnership working (Gra nato, and Jarvis, 2014).As a food technologists they should always be on phone as they have to travel a lot away from home so they can be connected at anytime and anywhere with their queries. To reach a lot of people and tell them about the food qualities and how they should maintain the hygiene factors to keep themselves fit and healthy so they should attend lot of conferences and seminars and make the people aware about all this factors. They should always be updated with the latest researches which are being taking place so that while going for a conference and seminars they can inform the audience about the latest techniques the food science departments are inventing for keeping the food qualities better and hygienic. They travel to various restaurants and hotels and test the taste and also the food quality and they are maintaining the hygiene factors or not and on that they will be writing the report and then submit it to the ministry and any hotel or restaurant owners are foun d guilty then they are penalized. They also keeps check on the suppliers that whether they are sending good quality raw materials or not and the place where they are keeping the food are maintaining the hygienic factors or not and they also have to keep the link between the laboratories where the food qualities are tested and also with the technical department where the whole processing takes place till the distribution part so that the foods are safe for having. As a professional food science technologist, I also have to maintain these roles which a professional technologist maintains but the company where I work is situated in Birmingham and this company is among the niche sectors and the role played by this company is from the storage to the distribution of the meat processing. This company is a meat processing plant where the processing of different types of meat is done (Markakis, Ed.2012). This company supplies meat to all the hotels, restaurants of that area. They have to maintain the quality of the food so that its hygiene factor is maintained and does not affect the health of the people who are consuming this meat. The role or the position that is been maintained by me in these company is of the technical assistant. I am the line manager of the technical department so I have to actively involve myself in all other departments also (Taylor, 2012). So, the work which I have to look after is the procedures and the policies of the compan y are well maintained by the employees or not. I also have to maintain the record sheets of the company as I am the line manager and involving myself in all other departmental work also. As a line manager, have to hear all the complaints of the customers also regarding the food quality and also other problems which they are facing regarding the meat that has been delivered to them and also have to look after the trainings that the company is giving to their new employees who have recently joined the company. As a line manager also have to monitor the PRPs and CCPs of the company (Liener, Ed.2012). The set up of the meat processing plant are also been maintained so that the systems are working in the right way or not and also in the machines which are used for processing the meat. I also have to look after the compliance of the company and if there is any then that should be solved without any such problems for the company and also for other employees working in the company (Stewart, and Amerine, 2012). As a line manager also have to solve the micro issues which are happening under my department so that it does not affect the working structure of the other employees. Audits need to be done to see that all the work which are being done are done properly or not without any difficulties and the audits are also being done to see whether the work which is done by the employees are done in the correct way or not. The employees who are been trained in the operating section are need to be given training on each and every part of the operating section so that if there is any problem then they can solve them by themselves only without taking help from outside (Stephen, and Phillips Eds.2014). The things which are been produced need to be tried before sending them for processing, preservation and packaging. As a line manager I also have to see the competition of the market so that our company also gives a tough competition to the other food processing competitors of the m arket. One of my major concerns should be that my company is maintaining the quality and the hygiene factors of the company or not and people are more conscious about these two factors (Cornelissen, 2011). For maintain the quality and the hygiene factors the company is sourcing the waste control, pest controls and also the chemicals which are being used for cleaning are well maintained or not. The hygiene factors need to be operative along with the titration checking of the chemicals (Campbell-Platt, Ed.2011). In a nutshell it can be said that the post of food science technologists is very crucial because they are looking after the health factor the consumers so that they do not consume any unhygienic things which will affect their health. As a food science technologist they should always keep the common public aware that what type of they should have for maintaining their health and also what steps they should take for maintain for keep the food qualities high. The technologists also have to maintain the hygienic sense of the company where the food is processed so that the customers do not have any problem regarding the processed food along with that the production of the company also needs to be maintained also the marketing section so that they can give a good competition to their competitors. So at last it can be said that we should consume healthy and hygienic food to ourselves fit and healthy. References Bucchi, M., and Trench, B. (Eds.) (2014)Handbook of public communication of science and technology Routledge Platt, G (2009) Food science and technology Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell Campbell-Platt, G. (Ed.). (2011).Food science and technology John Wiley and Sons. Cornelissen, J.P. (2011) Corporate communication: a guide to theory and practice.London,SAGE Publications Ltd Granato, D., de Arajo Calado, V. M., and Jarvis, B. (2014). Observations on the use of statistical methods in food science and technologyFood Research International,55, 137-149 Gunstone, F (Ed.) (2011)Vegetable oils in food technology: composition, properties and uses. John Wiley and Sons Li-Chan, E., Chalmers, J., and Griffiths, P. (Eds.). (2011).Applications of vibrational spectroscopy in Food Science(Vol. 1) John Wiley and Sons Liener, I. (Ed.). (2012).Toxic constituents of plant foodstuffs Elsevier Markakis, P. (Ed.). (2012) Anthocyanins as food colors Elsevier Rao, M. A., Rizvi, S. S., Datta, A. K., and Ahmed, J (Eds.) (2014)Engineering properties of foods. CRC press Robertson, G. L. (2012).Food packaging: principles and practice. CRC press Rockland, L. B., and Stewart G. F (Eds.) (2013)Water activity: influences on food quality: a treatise on the influence of bound and free water on the quality and stability of foods and other natural products Academic Press Stephen, A. M., and Phillips G. O. (Eds.). (2014).Food polysaccharides and their applications(Vol. 160) CRC Press Stewart, G. F., and Amerine, M. A. (2012).Introduction to food science and technology Elsevier Stumbo, C. R. (2013).Thermobacteriology in food processing Elsevier Sun, D. W. (Ed.). (2012).Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues. CRC Press Taylor, S. (2012).The chemistry and technology of pectin R. H Walter (Ed.) Academic Press Walstra, P., Walstra, P., Wouters, J. T., and Geurts, T. J. (2014).Dairy science and technology CRC press

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder

Abstract The debate surrounding the justification of deaths of innocent people caused by warring soldiers during war is a complicated issue to deal with. For fear of being attacked by disguised enemies, soldiers have ended up killing innocent civilians including older men, women, and children. While some people have argued that this may be acceptable, others think otherwise.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To a large extent, this is linked to the belief that human beings are mostly reasonable. Generally, killing of civilians during war time is regarded as a serious offence that should be dealt with carefully if the innocent have to receive protection. On the other hand, however, it is possible for warring soldiers to find themselves in difficult situations requiring them to act fast to protect themselves from attackers unknown to them. This is especially true whenever a soldier is fighting on the enemy’s soil. While it is ordinarily believed that most civilians especially women and children are the innocent ones, there are instances where they have been used by soldiers to ferry dangerous weapons to be used against the opponents. This has led to situations where a soldier ignores the fact a civilian may be innocent and goes ahead to kill in self defense. This is based on the fact that it may be difficult to determine the innocence of the civilian. To be on the safe side, soldiers generally regard every person as a potential threat. Introduction The appeal to what would cause outrage in the general sentiments of humanity is a common way to think about the elements of normal moral perception of which each person is thought to be capable. Certain things are thought to be so heinous that any person would be outraged when perceiving them. The killing of civilians during war time is one of the commonly cite d examples of this kind of monstrous act (May, 2005). But consider, for a moment, the conditions of war fare when one is acting in enemy territory. In some war time situations, every person, soldier or civilian, is a potential threat. If the civilians seem to be unarmed, and the soldiers are armed, then the idea of the civilians as potential threats is only partially blunted, because the soldiers often do not know which civilians are members of the enemy forces.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arguments for and Against Killing the Innocent in War It is clearly an outrage against the sentiments of humanity for soldiers to kill civilian men, women, and children? Initially, it seems that the answer would be clearly yes, as was held by the American military tribunal that convicted Lieutenant Calley. The shooting of seemingly unarmed civilians, especially children, at point blank range, appea red to be morally outrageous. Virtually, all societies have had strong moral prohibitions against the taking of innocent life (McMahan, 2009). The standard morally acceptable bases for justified killings, whether in self defense or in defense of others, can not be seen to justify killing those who do not have the capacity to harm or kill a well armed, typically male, adult soldier. Ordinarily, soldiers are trained to kill. When soldiers follow their training, and kill, it is not as much of an outrage as it would be for a non soldier to engage in such killing. But when a soldier or non soldier kills an innocent person, especially a child, this is considered to be enough of an outrage to our civilized instincts to think that it should be heavily sanctioned so as to prevent future acts of this sort at almost any cost (Buhk, 2012). In My Lai massacre, it is uncontested that Lieutenant Calley and his men killed more than 100 unarmed civilian men, women, and children. However, as one read s through the various court opinions in the case, there is quite a lot of disagreement of how best to characterize these killings. As pointed out earlier, the military tribunal found Calley guilty of war crimes, and the Court of Military Review upheld the conviction. But the first civilian court to consider the case took a very different position. Here is how the U.S. District Court characterized some of the facts: The petitioner was 25 years of age and had been an enlisted man for approximately 14 years. The petitioner’s first assignment in Vietnam was at Doc Pho. This was the first indoctrination about the character of the potential enemy. He was told that women were as dangerous as men, and that children were even more dangerous because they were unsuspected. He was also informed that women were frequently better shots than the men and that the children were used to plant mines and booby traps. During Calley’s earlier limited missions, the unit was continually subje ct to fire from unknown and unseen individuals.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A number of men in the company had been killed or wounded and prior to the operation at My Lai, they had never seen the persons responsible for the death or injuries of their buddies. Consequently, the formed the opinion that civilians were in part responsible. When Calley was supposedly to go to My Lai and kill everyone there, his background assumption seems to have been that all the people in the village, including men, women, and children, were enemies and potential threats. The U.S. District Court, therefore, granted Calley’s petition for habeas corpus relief in part because of how it understood the facts. On the other hand, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit reversed the U.S. District, also at least in part because of its very different construal of the factual record. In reversing the U.S. District Court, the Circuit Court of Appeals seemed to see the My Lai incident as nothing other than a slaughter of unarmed, unresisting old men, women, and children. What complicated the picture in My Lai was that the distinction between civilian and combatant had become blurred, with even fairly small children being used to transport weapons. So while there may be strong sentiments against the killing of civilians, especially children, there was a possible defense in the case of My Lai that might have been an exception to the moral judgment about what was normally acceptable or appropriate behavior. For there was reason, according to the US District Court, to believe that some civilians, and even some children, could be trying to inflict injury or death on the American soldiers in this Vietnamese hamlet.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At Calley’s military trial, and also in the US Circuit Court of Appeals, such reasons were indeed considered and rejected, after much discussion and debate. However, the US District Court seemed to believe that some of the civilians who were killed might have been thought to be threats to the soldiers in Lieutenant Calley’s unit. In retrospect, it seems that the District Court opinion was seriously flawed. For even if Calley had feared that the civilians in the My Lai hamlet might be enemy soldiers in disguise, they gave no indication that they were armed or that they were posing an immediate threat to Calley and his men. According to McMahan (2009), the moralized notion of a combatant as anyone who poses a threat in war is different from the legal notion. In law, combatant status is accorded to persons who satisfy certain criteria, such as disguising themselves visibly at a distance by some conventional sign, carrying their arms openly, subordinating themselves to a h ierarchy of authority and command, and obeying the laws of war. Failure to satisfy such criteria can result in the forfeiture of combatant status under the law. While combatants in this legal sense are all presumed to pose a threat, not all of those who pose a threat in war are combatants in this sense. While all those who pose a threat in war are combatants in the moral sense, a major problem in war theory is that there are many people who pose a threat in war who would not be considered combatants by anyone (McMahan, 2009). In partial defense of the District Court, I would point out that we do not always require soldiers to prove that enemy soldiers pose an immediate threat before it is considered justifiable to kill them. It may be too late by the time it discovered that suspected enemy soldiers are concealing not only their identities but also their weapons. The point here is not to argue that Calley should have been relieved of responsibility, but only to indicate that even in this seemingly clear case, two courts came to different conclusions about how to regard the My Lai massacre based on how they reconstructed the threat faced by Calley and his men in Vietnam. This discussion does not call into question the normal sentiment that innocent life should be preserved. Rather, what is uncertain is the very judgment that a certain adult or even a child is to be seen as an innocent person. And yet it is this judgment, really a matter of moral perception, which is crucial to the determination of whether it was indeed an outrage for Lieutenant Calley’s unit to kill civilians in the hamlet of My Lai in Vietnam. Defenses against Killing In the US tort law, one way to make sense of whether one is liable for a given harm that he or she did not intend to cause is to ask whether one violated a duty of care owed to the person armed (May, 2005). To ascertain if one had such a duty, one looks, among other things, at what the burden would have been to the agent if he or she had conformed to the duty. If the crucial issue before us concerns the possible culpable ignorance or moral negligence of soldiers, then the tort analysis of duty and negligence becomes relevant. What makes many battlefield situations so tragic is that the cost of acting with due care toward civilians is often that the soldiers risk death to themselves. In non battlefield situations, one is hardly ever faced with imminent death if he or she exercises due care towards others in his or her life. It is for this reason that the superior orders defense shows up most commonly in the battlefield situations, and not very often off the battlefield. It may be helpful to think of conspiracy as a model of most types of shared or collective responsibility. If Susan, Smith, and Alex recruit Peter to drive a gateway car in a bank robbery scheme cooked up by Susan, then it makes sense to think of all four as collectively responsible for the resulting bank robbery. This is especially appa rent if Peter is paid well for his contribution and understands perfectly, how her contribution to this joint venture will aid in its successful completion. The driver, Peter, is a cog in a machine like enterprise that will make the robbery possible in ways that would not be true if any of the four people involved were acting on their own or in only a loosely connected manner. For this reason, they are collectively responsible for the results of their joint undertaking. Their individual responsibility will depend on the role that each plays in the joint venture. Suppose that while Peter is driving away from the scene of the crime pedestrian steps off a curb in the path of the gang’s fleeing car. Peter, generally a compassionate person begins to apply the brake, but Susan, the insensitive ring leader puts a gun to Peter’s head and urges him to drive on to avoid being court. Should Peter be held responsible for the injuries of the pedestrian as well as for the robbery? O n the assumption that one held a gun to Peter’s head to get him to join the conspiracy in the first place, Peter seems to be in a different moral position with respect to the pedestrian’s injuries than with respect to the robbery itself. Certainly, Peter appeared to have a choice of whether to join the robbery conspiracy, but not much of a choice about whether to run down the pedestrian. Was it a moral choice of Peter to ignore the order given by Susan? There are many parallel cases in international law, such as when a soldier or subordinate feels that his or her life is threatened if he or she does not follow orders. The same consideration should be operative, making us reluctant to say that in such situations, there is a moral choice available to the soldier (Kurtz Turpin, 1999). In cases of collective guilt, subtleties of context are still relevant in determining how to apportion blame to the members of the group, especially concerning legal blame and guilt (Buhk, 2012). It is, however, important to place the reasonable person standard into the specific context that the actual person was faced with. In order to do this, it is often necessary to bring in some of the beliefs of the actual person in considering what a reasonable person would have done. On the other hand, battlefield situations are so abnormal that it will often be hard to merely drop a reasonable person into a situation without taking into account how the actual person in question reacted to the situation. On several occasions, war crime tribunals have had to decide what price is too high to pay in order to expect people to reasonably exercise due care not to injure one another. In the case of Lieutenant Calley, it may be true that he and his soldiers feared for their own lives if they did not do what they thought they had been legitimately ordered to do. In Calley’s case, he never claimed that someone literally had a gun to his head, forcing him to shoot the civilians. I n the same way, his concern that the seemingly innocent civilians might be enemies in disguise was not sufficient to establish the proposition that he had no other moral choice but to follow orders, for it is important to consider what sort of threat those civilians posed. If the killings of the civilians had been clearly and unambiguously wrong, then Calley would have needed a very strong showing that he had no moral choice but to do what was clearly and unambiguously wrong. An important question that to be asked is whether a reasonable person in Calley’s situation would believe that these civilians posed a threat to his safety, and that of his troops. If so, then perhaps even moral choice was restricted in this situation. Conclusion Much philosophical discussion about political violence is taken up with argument about whether and to what extent acts of violence can be justified as a means to good ends. According to Kurtz and Turpin (1999), there are limit on what may justif iably be done in pursuit of good or worthy ends. Even though many actions can be justified by their beneficial consequences, some actions are simply wrong in themselves. Some people typically take the view that, other than in circumstances of war, the only acceptable justification for violence is that of self defense or defense of others from wrongful attack. Persons have moral rights not to be wrongfully injured or killed, and consequently, they have rights to defend themselves against wrongful physical attacks. It is also sometimes argued that to violently attack someone who is not engaged in or threatening violence is a kin to punishing an innocent person. Conversely, one who engages in wrongful violence against another may be said to have relinquished his or her normal rights to be attacked. We can only be justified in using as much violence against an attacker, however, as is required to defend ourselves. From the arguments presented in this paper, it is apparent that one of th e tests of whether an act of the defendant violates the requirement by law is if the act shocks the conscience of humanity. In most cases, there is an overlap of the law and morality indicating the relevance of moral matters to questions of whether a crime was committed wrongfully or not. It is, therefore, important for the court to exercise considerable restraint in prosecuting, convicting, and sentencing soldiers for deaths occurring during war. References Buhk, T. T. (2012). True Crime in the Civil War: Cases of Murder, Treason, Counterfeiting, Massacre, Plunder, Abuse. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Kurtz, L.R. Turpin, J. E. (1999). Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict. Massachusetts: Academic Press. May, L. (2005). Crimes against Humanity: A Normative Account. New York: Cambridge University Press. McMahan, J. (2009). Killing in War. New York: Cambridge University Press. 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